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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Kaba volcano (Volcano)

Kabargin Oth (Volcano)

Kabargin Oth volcano is a group of andesitic to dacitic cinder cones and lava domes in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia near the border with Russia.

Kadovar (Volcano)

Kadovar volcano forms the tiny 2 km wide Kadovar Island, one of the Schouten Islands. It is located 25 km north of the mouth of the Sepik River on New Guinea. The island is the submerged peak of a stratovolcano at the western end of the 1000 km long Bismarck volcanic arc. Kadovar contains a 1 km wide breached crater, and the village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. There are no certain eruptions in historic time, but an increase in thermal activity occurred in 1976. -> See whole entry

Kaikata (Volcano)

Kaikata Seamount is a basaltic-to-dacitic submarine volcano north of Kaitoku Seamount in the Japanese Volcano Islands. Kaitaka mountain rises 2350 m from the sea floor to within 162 m of the sea surface. It has 2 major summit peaks oriented NE-SW, with the SW peak being the highest. Hydrothermal activity was observed in 1988 at a depth of 460 m, and the volcano was reclassified as active by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kaikohe-Bay of Islands (Volcano)

Kaikohe-Bay of Islands volcano is a volcanic field at the upper end of the Northland Peninsula about 190 km NNW of Auckland. It contains about 30 craters and vents, mainly basaltic cinder cones, small shield volcanoes and lava plateaus. The last eruptions occurred about 1500 years ago and formed the 4 well-preserved scoria cones and lava flows at Te Puke. Hot springs occur at 3 locations, including near Lake Omapere, which was dammed by lava flows. -> See whole entry

Kairinu (Volcano)

Kairini island is offshore from Wewak. The island is heavily vegetated and has no villages inland. The western part of the island is volcanic and there is a crater and hot springs at Victoria Bay.

Kaiserstuhl Synonym of: Vulcano (Volcano)

Kaitoku (Volcano)

Kaitoku volcano (Kaitoku Kaizan) is a massive active seamount composed of 3 overlapping submarine volcanoes in the Japanese Volcano Islands chain, 130 km NW of Iwo-jima Island. Its 3 peaks are 13-18 km apart and reach depths of 103 m (SW peak, also known as Nishi-Kaitokuba, West Kaitokuba), 353 m (SE peak, Higashi-Kaitokuba, East Kaitokuba), and 506 m (N peak).

Kalatungan (Volcano)

Kalatungan volcano (also known as Catatungan), is the second highest volcano in the Philippines and located 47 km east of Lake Lana on Mindanao Island. The dominantly basaltic volcano forms a broad E-W trending ridge. The age of its last activity is unknown.

Kameni Hora (Place)

Kameni Hora is a village on Methana and the start point to the historic lava dome. -> See whole entry

Kana Keoki (Volcano)

Kana Keoki is an active submarine volcano in the Western Solomons, located 26 km SW of Rendova Island. Studies from the 1960s have shown that the dacitic volcano is an active volcano, that forms a 3000 m high seamount on the Ghizo Ridge south of the plate margin between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.

Kanaga (Volcano)

Kanaga volcano is an active symmetrical stratovolcano rising 1300 m on the northern part of Kanaga Island in the western Aleutians, Alaska. It is one of the most southerly volcanoes of the central Aleutian chain. The volcano has a small 200 m wide and 60 m deep circular summit crater with fumaroles inside the crater and around its rims. Historical eruptions have been recorded since 1763, but not in much detail due to the remoteness of the volcano. A new eruption might have started on 18 February 2012. -> See whole entry

Kanpu (Volcano)

Kanpu volcano (also known as Ichinomegata) is a small cone on the Oga Peninsula NW of Akita City. -> See whole entry

Karaca Dağ (Volcano)

The huge Karaca Dağ volcano is a 1957 m high basaltic shield volcano in SE-Turkey near the Syrian border. It is situated on the Arabian foreland and about 150 km of the boundary of the Anatolian plate. It has been active since the Pliocene and also in historic times eruptions occured on its east flank. -> See whole entry

Karadağ (Volcano)

A huge volcanic complex near the village Madenşehri with a huge crater. -> See whole entry

Karai (Volcano)

Karai volcano is the highest volcano in the Sulu Range in north-central New Britain off Bangula Bay. The Sulu Range consists of a cluster of partially overlapping small stratovolcanoes and lava domes. There are no historic eruptions, but in 2006, a vigorous new fumarolic vent opened, preceded by vegetation die-off, seismic swarms and landslides. -> See whole entry

Karang (Volcano)

Gunung Karang volcano lies in westernmost Java near Pulosari volcano SE of the geologically young 15-km-wide Danau caldera. The eroded and forested stratovolcano of andesitic and basaltic composition is the highest of a group of stratovolcanoes in the Danau caldera area. -> See whole entry

Karangetang (Api Siau) (Volcano: Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano)

Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Located on the remote Api Siau Island north of N Sulawesi, it is notorious for building lava domes and producing dangerous pyroclastic flows. -> See whole entry

Karapinar (Volcano)

The Karapinar volcanic field is one of the most interesting areas in south-western Turkey. -> See whole entry

Karkar (Volcano)

Karkar volcano along with its neighbor Manam is one of Papua New Guinea's most active volcanoes. The volcano is located on Karkar Island off New Guinea's north coast 64 km north of Madang. The forested Karkar Island is 25 km long and 19 km wide and cut by 2 nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The inner caldera is almost circular in shape and has 3.2 km in diameter with vertical walls up to 300 m high. It was formed during violent eruptions sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago. The historic activity at Karkar volcano, recorded since 1643, consisted in small explosions including strombolian and phreatic eruptions. Most eruptions came from Bagiai vent, a cinder cone inside the inner caldera. -> See whole entry

Karpinsky (Volcano)

Karpinsky volcano is a group of 3 young andesitic cones in southern Paramushir Island, Kuril Islands. The cones are located at the southern end of the Karpinsky Ridge. The NW cone contains vigorous fumaroles. It has produced a lava flow that flowed 7 km to the SE. The southern cone forms the highest point of the Karpinsky massif. It fed lava flows to the SE and west. The NW cone displays hot springs and sulfur cones containing liquid sulfur that is occasionally ejected outward. A minor ash eruption in 1952 was the only historical eruption of the Karpinsky group. (Source: Smithsonian / GVP volcano information)

Kars (Volcano)

The Kars Plateau is a broad calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanic field of largely Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene age in the NE corner of Turkey (Innocenti et al., 1982; Yilmaz, 1990). -> See whole entry

Karthala (Volcano)

Karthala is a large shield volcano with a summit caldera on La Grande Island of the Comores in the western Indian Ocean. It erupts every few years and often produces voluminous lava flows and sometimes has a lava lake in the crater of the caldera. -> See whole entry

Karymsky (Volcano)

Karymsky is the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone and a perfect symmetrical stratovolcano. Ash eruptions from Karymski can come in the way of aircraft flight routes across the N Pacific. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone in one of the world's volcanoes with persistent activity and has been erupting for at least about 500 years. -> See whole entry

Kasatochi (Volcano)

Kasatochi is a remote island forming the peak of a mostly submerged stratovolcano rising to 314 m a.s.l. in the Aleutian island chain. It is one of the volcanoes in the world that formed new islands in historic times. -> See whole entry

Kasbek (Volcano)

Kasbek volcano is a large glacier-covered stratovolcano in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia south of the border with Russia. It is the second highest volcano (after Elbrus) in the Caucasus range. There are no known historic eruptions, but radiocarbon-dated lava flows and its summit cone are only about 6000 years old, suggesting that the volcano is still active.

Kasuga (Volcano)

Kasuga volcano is a conical submarine volcano rising 3000 m from the ocean floor to a depth of 598 m, located SE of Fukujin submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands of Japan 1550 km SSE of Tokyo. It is the northernmost of 3 seamounts forming the Kasuga seamounts complex. The Kasuga complex lies in the northern part of a backarc basin west of the Mariana volcanic arc. Floating pumice was seen south of the volcano location in 1959 and water discolouration above the seamount was reported in November 1975. -> See whole entry

Katla volcano (Volcano)

Katmai (Volcano)

A large stratovolcano in Alaska, near the Novarupta vent, that erupted in 1912 with the largest volcanic eruption in the 20th century, 10 times the size of the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. -> See whole entry

Kavachi (Volcano)

Kavachi volcano is a shallow submarine volcano located south of the remote Vangunu Island in the Solomones. It is als known as Rejo te Kvachi, "Kavachi's Oven", and one of the most active of the Pacific with near surface eruptions every few years that often build temporary islands. New islands were formed at least 9 times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. The new islands formed were not large enough and coated with solid lava flows to be able to resist wave erosion. They were submerged again after a few months after each eruption. The frequent shallow submarine eruptions that sometimes breach the surface produce surtseyan activity, magma-water explosions that eject jets of steam, ash, and incandescent bombs above the sea surface. On some occasions during such eruptions, the vent was sealed sufficiently to produce liquid lava spattering and lava flows on the temporary islands. -> See whole entry

Kawah Kamojang (Volcano)

Kawah Kamojang 7 km WNW of active Guntur volcano was the first developed geothermal field in Indonesia. It is located within geologically young Pangkalan caldera. The 1.2 x 0.7 km hydrothermally active area has many fumaroles, steam vents, hot lakes, mud pots, and colorful hydrothermally altered ground. -> See whole entry

Kawah Karaha (Volcano)

Kawah Karaha is a fumarole field at the northern and older end of the regional N-S trending volcanic chain comprising Galunggung volcano near Garut. Kawah Karaha fumarole field covers an area of 250 x 80 m and contains a sulfur deposit. -> See whole entry

Kawi-Butak (Volcano)

Kawi-Butak is a broad volcanic massif with 2 vents (Kawi and Butak) immediately east of Kelut volcano and south of Arjuno-Welirang volcano and located 15 km west of the gegional capital Malang. No historical eruptions are known from Kawi and Butak, but it is considered still possibly active.

Kelimutu (Volcano)

Kelimutu (Keli Mutu) volcano in central Flores, Indonesia, is famous for its 3 colorful acid crater lakes, where different salts and oxides in suspension or solution give the lakes varying colors ranging from blue and dark green to intense red. In historic times, few small phreatic explosions have been the only activity at the volcano. The scenic craters with their lakes are popular tourist destinations. -> See whole entry

Kelud (Volcano)

Kelud volcano (also spelled Kelut) is one of East Java's most active volcanoes. The volcano has a spectacular large crater that contains a lake, which was a popular weekend destination but also the origin of devastating mud flows (lahars). In Oct-Nov 2007, a new lava dome grew within the lake to form an island, replacing most of the water. Kelut is notorious among Indonesia's volcanoes for its violent, and often deadly explosive eruptions. One of the worst volcanic disasters occurred during the 1919 eruption, when the (then very large) crater lake drained and formed lahars that killed at least 5160 people. An eruption in 1586 is believed to have caused even more than 10,000 fatalities. -> See whole entry

Keluo (Volcano)

Keluo volcano is a volcanic field in NE China near the Russion border, south of the Heilongjiang (Black Dragon) River, 310 km NNW of the city of Daquiin. The volcanic group covers 350 sq km and contains 23 cones, some of which could be Holocene in age (have formed less than 10,000 years ago), judging by their youthful morphology, including Nanshan (科洛南山) cone at the southern end of the field north of the Keluo River, Keluo Gushan (科洛孤山) cone, Keluo Jianshan (科洛尖山), Keluo Dayishan (科洛大椅山) and Keluo Xiaoyishan (科洛小椅山). There are unconfirmed reports of historical activity at Keluo. -> See whole entry

Kembar (Volcano)

The Gayolesten fumarole field is located on the flanks of the Pleistocene Gunung Kembar volcano. -> See whole entry

Kendang (Volcano)

Kendang volcano lies 8 km north of Papandayan volcano in West Java. It is known for its 4 fumarole fields, in particular Kawah Manuk with its solfataras, mud pools and hot springs in a 2.75 km wide crater-like depression. No historic eruptions are known from Kendang volcano, but it is considered active and its youngest products are a rhyolitic lava dome and obsidian lava flows of Holocene age (<10,000 years old). -> See whole entry

Kenger (Volcano)

The Kenger volcano belongs to the fault system that created also the Kula cinder cones in western Turkey. -> See whole entry

Kerimasi (Vulkanologie)

Kerinci volcano (Volcano)

Kerlingarfjöll volcano (Volcano)

Ketoi (Volcano)

Ketoi volcano forms a 10 km wide island 19 km NE of Simushir Island across Diana Strait in the Kurile Islands. The first historical eruption of Pallas Peak, during 1843-46, was its largest. Strong fumarolic activity was observed on the northern flank of Pallas Peak in the 1980's. -> See whole entry

Khala Synonym of: Pechan (Volcano)

Khamsara-Biykhem Plateau Synonym of: Azas Plateau (Volcano)

Kharimkotan (Volcano)

Kharimkotan (also spelled Harimkotan) volcano is a stratovolcano forming a 8 x 12 km island in the northern Kuriles. Only the upper 25% of the massive volcano rises above sea level. In its geologic past, the volcano has suffered several slope failures and created devastating debris avalanches. The 1933 eruption was one of the largest of the Kurile Islands in historic times. It destroyed the former summit cone of the volcano -> See whole entry

Kikai (Volcano)

Kikai volcano is a 19 km large, mostly submerged caldera at the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, located 45 km south of Kuyshu. It is one of the country's most active and most explosive volcanoes. Satsuma-Iojima (or Tokara Iojima), a portion of the mostly submerged NW caldera rim, is a small 6x3 km wide and 681 m high island, which has about 140 inhabitants. Its name meaning "sulphur island", it has been the site of most historic eruptions of the caldera, mostly from the Iwo-dake lava dome. -> See whole entry

Kilauea (Volcano: Kilauea volcano, Big Island, Hawai'i)

The youngest and most active of several shield volcanoes forming the Big Island of Hawai'i. -> See whole entry

Kilauea (Volcano)

Kilauea is the youngest and most active Hawaiian shield volcano, located on the southern part of the Island of Hawai'i, known as Big Island. Hawai'i is the southernmost and largest of the island chain, which owes its existence to the very active Hawaiian hot spot. Kilauea volcano is near-constantly erupting from vents either on its summit (caldera) or on the rift zones. At present, Kilauea volcano is still having one of the most long-lived eruptions known on earth, which started in 1983 on the eastern rift zone and has mainly been concentrated at the Pu'u 'O'o vent. -> See whole entry

Kilimanjaro (Volcano)

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