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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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La Gloria (Volcano)

La Gloria is a volcanic field in central eastern Mexcio's sparsely populated highland between Cofre de Perote and Las Cumbres volcanoes. It is named after the small town of La Gloria to the SE and also known as Desconocido-Tecomales volcanic field. La Gloria volcanic field belongs to the Citlaltépetl–Cofre de Perote Volcanic Range, which forms a 70 kmlong chain of volcanoes. It contains numerous young-looking cinder cones and 2 prominent arcuate east-facing scarps. The age of the latest volcanic activity is unknown, but thought to be Holocene at some of the cones.

La Gomera (Volcano)

La Gomera is one of the most beautiful of the volcanic Canarians. It is a heavily eroded ocean island shield volcano. Although it is the 3rd youngest of the Canarian island, it is already extinct. It stopped erupting about 3 million years ago.

La Malinche (Volcano)

La Malinche is a Pleistocene andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano in the eastern Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt located only 25 km from the city of Puebla. La Malinche is heavily eroded and probably in in its final stages of activity, but could still erupt in the future, in which case it would pose a serious hazard to Puebla city. La Malinche has several dacitic summit lava domes that have filled the summit crater. Several small flank vents are located on the flanks. -> See whole entry

La Negrillar (Volcano)

The La Negrillar volcano (also known as Aguas Perdidas) is a cone and lava flow complex along the SW margin of the Atacama basin in northern Chile, WSW of Socompa volcano between the Sierra San Juan and Sierra Almeida. The La Negrillar field covers a roughly 16 km wide area. Its age is unknown, but it could be less than 10,000 years old, as its young-looking craters and lava flows with well-preserved levees suggest. The lavas in the field are basaltic-andesite in composition and different from the similarly named El Negrillar volcanic field to the north.

La Palma (Volcano)

The 47-km-long wedge-shaped island of La Palma, the NW-most of the Canary Islands, is composed of two large volcanic centers. -> See whole entry

La Yeguada (Volcano)

La Yeguada volcano (also known as Chitra-Calobre) is a stratovolcano in west-central Panamá east of Laguna La Yeguada and north of the Azuero Peninsula. The last volcanic activity was at the Media Luna cinder cone about 45,000 years ago. The widely spread information that it erupted only 300-350 years ago is most likely wrong (see below). There is geothermal activity with warm springs at the volcanic complex, including the Chitra-Calobre geothermal field which is the site of intensive geothermal exploration. -> See whole entry

Laacher See (Volcano: Laacher See volcano)

Laacher See or Laach Lake (in English) is a crater lake or more exactly a caldera lake in the Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated close to the cities of Koblenz, Mayen (11 km), and Andernach (14 km). It fills a volcanic caldera in the Eifel mountain range, the only caldera in Central Europe. It is part of the area of the "east Eifel volcanic field". -> See whole entry

Labo (Volcano)

Mount Labo volcano is located SW of the city of Daet at the northwestern end of the Bicol Volcanic Arc on Luzon Island, Philippines. It is a forested, andesitic stratovolcano with a basal diameter of 24 km. Labo last erupted about 27,000 years ago, but still shows geothermal activity, in the form of warm and hot springs. There is geothermal exploration near Labo volcano. -> See whole entry

Laguna (Volcano)

The elliptical, 10 x 20 km wide caldera of Laguna de Bay is located immediately SE of Manila city, Philippines. It is the largest lake on Luzon Island and its surface is only 1 m above sea level. Jalajala is a fumarole field on the flank of Mount Sembrano on the shore of Laguna de Bay. -> See whole entry

Laguna Aramuaca (Volcano)

Laguna Aramuaca volcano is a lake-filled explosion crater (maar) 10 km SE of the city of San Miguel in southeastern El Salvador. The crater is 1 km wide and might have formed less than 10,000 years. The phreatomagmatic eruptions that formed it left spectacular pyroclastic surge deposits exposed in quarries near the rim.

Laguna Blanca (Volcano)

Laguna Bianca is a group of cinder cones and lava flows SW of the town of Zapala. A perfectly shaped and youthful-looking cinder cone on the northern shore of Laguna Blanca is the most prominent feature. Laguna Blanca National Park is famous for its aquatic bird fauna, including black-necked swans and flamingos. -> See whole entry

Laguna de Apoyo Synonym of: Apoyo (Volcano)

Laguna del Maule (Volcano)

Laguna del Maule is a 15x25 km wide lake-filled volcanic caldera in central Chile near the border to Argentina, east of Nevados de Longavi volcano. The complex is less than 30,000 years old and covers 300 km2 contains a cluster of small stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones some of which are younger than 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Laguna Jayu Khota (Volcano)

Laguna Jayu Khota is a group of 2 young maars (Jayu Khota and Nekhe Khota to the NE) in the Central Altiplano of Bolivia, north of Salar de Uyuni and east of Salar de Coipasa. It was originally believed that they were meteorite impact craters. -> See whole entry

Laguna Mariñaqui (Volcano)

Laguna Mariñaqui volcano is a group of 2 cinder cones 2 km apart on a NE trending fault SSE of Copahué volcano and ENE of Tolguaca volcano. The andesitic cinder cones have formed during the past 10,000 years and produced lava flows.

Lamington (Volcano)

Mt Lamington volcano is a large andesitic stratovolcano within sight of the provincial capital Popondetta north of the Owen Stanley Range. It rises 1680 m above the coastal plain. The forested Mount Lamington had not been known as a volcano, before it erupted violently in 1951 and caused one of the 20th century's worst volcanic desasters, killing more than 3000 people. Mount Lamington is one of 4 large Quaternary stratovolcanoes on the north coast of southeastern New Guinea. The other 3 volcanoes are Hydrographers Range, Mount Trafalgar, and Mount Victory volcanoes. -> See whole entry

Lamonai (Dawson Strait Group) (Volcano)

Lamonai is one of 3 volcanic centres of the Dawson Strait Group volcano. It is located on the SE end of Fergusson island inland from Sebutuia Bay. Lamonai volcano is a composite cone and has a steep-walled summit crater with strong thermal activity. Rhyolitic lava flows are exposed on the NE side of the cone. -> See whole entry

Lamongan (Volcano)

Lamongan is a small stratovolcano in East Java located between the larger Tengger and Iyang-Argapura volcanoes. It is surrounded by numerous craters and cinder cones, forming a volcanic zone stretching 25 km E-W and 16 km N-S., and covering an area of 260 km2. The volcano had many eruptions in the 19th century, but has probably not erupted since. It is remarkable and unusual for a subduction zone volcano for its many flank vents and relatively effusive eruption style. In the period of intense activity between 1799 and 1898, there were up to 15 basaltic lava flow eruptions. -> See whole entry

Langila (Volcano)

Langila volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Bismarck Arc of New Britain. It is located 11 km south of Cape Gloucester. The volcano consists of a group of 4 small overlapping basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of extinct Talawe volcano, which still forms the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. Langila's typical activity is strombolian to vulcanian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows. Summit explosions at Langila volcano often produce shock waves. -> See whole entry

Langjökull volcano (Volcano)

Lanin (Volcano)

Lanín is a large, conical and active (but at present dormant) stratovolcano on the Chile-Argentina border, located approximately 45 km southeast of Villarrica volcano. The volcano is mostly basaltic and andesitic in composition and many eruptions came from flank vents. The most recent eruption took place about 2200 years ago and produced a small lava dome at the summit and a block lava flow to the north. -> See whole entry

Lanzarote (Volcano)

The 60-km-long island of Lanzarote at the NE end of the Canary Islands contains the largest concentration of youthful volcanism in the Canaries. -> See whole entry

Las Cumbres (Volcano)

Las Cumbres volcano is a stratovolcano in central-eastern Mexico in Puebla state about 190 km SE of Mexico City and only 15 km NNE of Pico de Orizaba volcano. It is part of the 70 km N-S trending Citlaltépetl–Cofre de Perote Volcanic Range. The volcano contains a a 4.5 km x 3.5 km summit caldera narrowly breached on the east side and partly filled by the dacitic Cerro Gordo or El Cumbre Grande lava dome complex. The area is famous for the obsidian lava domes Xalista and El Rodeo to the north, and Ixetal to the south of Las Cumbre. The last activity in the area was from the rhyolitic Yolotepec lava dome, north of Las Cumbres, has been radiocarbon dated at about 5900 years before present. -> See whole entry

Las Lajas (Volcano)

Las Lajas is a basaltic shield volcano 20 km north of Lake Nicaragua. La Lajas is the youngest of a group of volcanoes east of the Nicaraguan graben. Based on its fresh morphology, it could be still active. Las Lajas volcano has a 7 km wide and 650 m deep caldera, which contains 5 lava domes in the center and is cut by a narrow canyon on the SE side. There are lava domes and cones on the outer flanks.

Las Pilas (Volcano)

Las Pilas volcano is a volcanic complex near Cerro Negro volcano 75 km NW of the capital Managua. The volcano consists of several cones around the central vent, Las Pilas, which contains a 700 m wide and 120 m deep crater and is the site of the recent activity. El Hoyo is a 150 m deep pit crater immediately SW of the main crater. It contains particularly strong fumaroles and produces sometimes dense plumes of gas and steam. The only certain historic activity from Las Pilas were 2 phreatic eruptions from a fissure on the eastern side of Las Pilas cone in 1952 and 1954. An eruption in the 16th century is uncertain. -> See whole entry

Lascar (Volcano)

Láscar volcano in northern Chile is the most active of the northern Chilean Andes. Lascar is an andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano with 3 overlapping summit craters. Large lava flows are visible on its NW flanks. Lascar is flanked 5 km to the east by the older, but higher Volcán Aguas Calientes stratovolcano. Lascar has had a number of small to moderate explosive eruptions in historic times, as well as a few larger eruptions that caused ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The biggest eruption of Lascar in historical time was in 1993 and produced pyroclastic flows, which traveled 8.5 km NW of the summit, and ashfall in Buenos Aires. -> See whole entry

Lassen (Volcano)

Lassen (or Lassen Peak) volcano in northern California is located at the southern end of the Cascade Range. Besides Mt St. Helens, it is the only volcano in the contiguous US that erupted in the 20th century. Lassen's summit complex is a lava dome that rises 2,000 feet (610 m) above the surrounding terrain and has a volume of half a cubic mile, making it one of the largest lava domes on Earth. Its summit is a complex area of several craters. Lassen Peak is the largest and youngest of a group of more than 30 volcanoes that have erupted in the Lassen Peak area over the past 300,000 years.

Lastarria (Volcano)

Lastarria is a stratovolcano on the Argentina/Chile border. The volcano contains 5 nested summit craters. The youngest part of the volcano is a lava dome overlapping the northern crater. A large prehistoric debris avalanche deposit is located on the SE flank and younger deposits of pyroclastic flows form an apron around the the northern base of the volcano. There are no known historical eruptions, but the young morphology of some deposits suggest that Lastarria has been active during historical time. There is intense fumarolic activity on the rim and flanks of the northern summit crater and its NW flank, and sulfur flows have occurred by melting of extensive sulfur deposits in the summit region. -> See whole entry

Latukan (Volcano)

Latukan is a poorly known volcano SE of Lake Lanao, in NW Mindanao Island (Philippines). The probably still active volcano lies in the center of a chain of young E-W trending stratovolcanoes, between the active Ragang and Makaturing volcanoes. The age of Latukan's last activity is unknown.

Lautaro (Volcano)

Lautaro is an active stratovolcano in southern Chile. The glacier-covered volcano is the highest Chilean volcano below 40 degrees south and the highest peak of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Lautaro volcano has a crater just below its summit on the NW side and a 1km wide crater on the NE flank. Lautaro is one of the most active volcanoes in Patagonia. -> See whole entry

lava (Volcanology)

Molten rock, called magma, is called lava when it reaches the surface during a volcanic eruption. Depending on how the magma erupts, it can form lava flows, lava fountains, lava lakes, or be fragmented into scoria and ash during explosive eruptions. -> See whole entry

lava balloon (Volcanology)

Lava balloons are hollow gas-filled pieces of lava floating to the surface above effusive submarine vents. Many lava balloons have been produced and observed during the ongoing 2011-12 shallow submarine eruption at El Hierro. -> See whole entry

lava bench (Volcanology)

A lava bench is a platform formed by new lava flows that extends the old shoreline; in particular, this can be observed on Hawaii at Kilauea volcano during times when lava is entering the ocean, forming new land. -> See whole entry

lava flow (Volcanology)

Lava flows are almost self-explanatory. When magma is erupted in molten or a partially molten state it often has the ability to flow. This is typically the case for basaltic volcanoes such as Hawaii and Etna whose lavas are relatively fluid. Lava flows might form either as primary flows directly flowing out of a vent from the vent or by rapid aggregation of hot fluid spatter that fall back from lava fountains to form a flow. -> See whole entry

lava fountain (Volcanology)

Jets of fluid lava propelled into the air from an erupting vent, driven by expanding gasses. -> See whole entry

lava lake (Volcanology)

Lava lakes are accumulations of larger volumes of liquid lava above one or several vents, usually contained within a crater on the summit of the volcano. -> See whole entry

lava trees (Volcanology)

The lava coating around a tree trunk left by an invading liquid lava flow. -> See whole entry

Lavic Lake (Volcano)

Lavic Lake, a dry lakebed in the Mojave desert, California, is a volcanic field of 4 cinder cones, 3 of which are in the Lavic Lake area and a fourth in the Rodman Maountains 20 km to the west. Pisgah crater is the main feature, a prominent 100 m high cinder cone north of Lavic Lake surrounded by an 80 km2 basalt lava flow field. -> See whole entry

Lawu (Volcano)

Lawu volcano is located in Central Java, east of Merapi volcano and near the town of Solo. Lawu consists of an older, deeply eroded northern section and younger eruption craters in the south, where its last eruption took place in 1885, the volcano's only historical eruption. Fumarolic activity is present ina deep ravine on the south flank at 2550 m elevation. -> See whole entry

Leizhou Bandao (Volcano)

Leizhou Bandao volcano is a volcanic field on the Leizhou peninsula 480 km SW of Hong Kong, across the Qiongzhou strait north of Hainan Dao Island. The field contains a group of Policene-Holocene cinder cones and the basaltic Yingfengling and Tianyang volcanoes, which are 15 km apart and located in the center of the Leizhou Peninsula. -> See whole entry

Lemonosov (Volcano)

Lomonosov volcano is a group of 4 cinder cones and a lava dome less than 10,000 years old, that were constructed along a N-S. It is located south of Tatarinov volcano in southern Paramushir Island, Kuril Islands. -> See whole entry

Leonard Range (Volcano)

Leonard Range (also known as Leonard Kniazeff) volcano is an andesitic-dacitic volcanic complex with a 4x5 km caldera. It is located east of Davao Gulf in SE Mindanao, east of the major N-S-trending Philippine Fault and belongs to the East Mindanao Arc. The last activity of Leonard Range probably occurred about 1800 years ago, indicated by radiocarbon dating of charred wood found in a pyroclastic flow deposit on the edge of the caldera. The caldera contains Lake Leonard known for its abundance of fish species and as a surviving habitat of the rare Philippine crocodile. Several thermal areas and solfataras occur at Leonard Range. -> See whole entry

Leroboleng (Volcano)

Leroboleng volcano (also known as Lereboleng or Lewono) on the eastern end of Flores Island has a complex summit with 29 craters with diameters ranging between 12 and 100 m. -> See whole entry

Level Mountain (Volcano)

Level Mountain in NW British Columbia, Canada, SW of Dease Lake and north of Telegraph Creek is the most voluminous and most active volcano of the Stikine volcanic belt. -> See whole entry

Lewotobi (Volcano)

Lewotobi volcano at the eastern end of Flores Island is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the region. It has two peaks arranged on a NW-SE line separated by 2 km and a 1232 m high saddle. This gave the twin volcano its name Lewotobi "husband and wife" (also spelled Lewetobi). The two peaks correspond to the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Lewotobi Lakilaki (1584 m) has a summit crater of 400 m diameter open to the north. Lewotobi Perampuan (1703 m)'s crater is 700 m wide. -> See whole entry

Lewotolo (Volcano)

Lewotolo (or Ile Api Lewotolok) volcano on the eastern end of a peninsula of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island forms a perfect symmetrical cone. The stratovolcano has 2 craters of 900x800 m and 250x200 m in diameter. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1660, have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater. -> See whole entry

Licancabur (Volcano)

Licancabur volcano is an active stratovolcano in northern Chile on the border with Bolivia, 40 km east of San Pedro de Atacama town. Liancabur has an impressive symmetric shape with constant 30 degrees slopes. It is known for containing the world's highest lake inside its 400 m wide summit crater at at 5913 m. Young blocky andesitic lava flows with prominent levees extend 6 km down the western flanks of the volcano. These and lava flows from flank vents are the most recent products, but the precise age of the last activity is not known. Older lava flows have reached up to 15 km distance and are covered by pyroclastic flow deposits reaching up to 12 km distance from the crater. Archaeological ruins were found on the crater rim of Volcán Licancabur. -> See whole entry

Licto (Volcano)

Licto volcano is a group of cinder cones along the Río Chambo about 25 km SE of the city of Riobamba and just north of the town of Licto, Ecuador. It is the southernmost young volcanic area in the Interandean valley of Ecuador. The precise age of the cones is unknown, but based on their young morphology, they are believed to be Holocene or not older than late Pleistocene. -> See whole entry

Lihir (Volcano)

Lihir volcano forms the small Lihir Island, the largest of a group of island north of New Ireland (Papua New Guinea). It is the largest of the volcanic chain east of New Ireland. Lihir is composed of 5 overlapping basaltic stratovolcanoes, including Luise, Kinami, and Huniho. 4 young submarine volcanoes offshore Lihir Island belong to the complex as well. Luise is the youngest volcano of Lihir and contains an elliptical 5.5 km long and 3.5 km wide caldera open to the sea, forming Luise Harbour. The caldera rises with steep walls 700 m above the sea, and its floor is covered by debris from the walls. It probably formed around 400,000 years ago. In the center of the caldera, a strongly hydrothermally altered lava dome is present and displays extensive thermal activity along its margins. -> See whole entry

Lipari (Volcano)

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