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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Nabro (Volcano)

Nabro is a stratovolcano at the SE end of the Danakil Alps in Eritrea and is the highest volcano in the Danakil depression. Nabro is a complex volcano with 2 nested calderas of 8 and 15 km diameter, the larger of which is breached to the SW. The stratovolcano consists mainly of trachytic lava flows and tephra layers. Inside the caldera and on its flanks, there are post-caldera rhyolitic obsidian domes and basaltic lava flow. Although not precisely dated, the most recent features are lava flows from NNW-trending fissures transverse to the NE-SW trend of the Nabro volcanic range. -> See whole entry

Nabukelevu (Volcano)

Nabukelevu volcano is an andesitic-dacitic lava dome complex at the SW end of Kadavu Island, Fiji. Its summit is called Mt. Washington. There are flat lava flows at Cape Washington on the west coast and at the Talaulia Bay on the NE coast. A main hazard from the volcano are debris avalanches from the lava dome complex, which is cut by several collapse scarps that could trigger tsunamis dangerous for nearby coasts, including Fiji's capital Suva 110 km to the north. -> See whole entry

Nakano-shima (Volcano)

Nakano-shima volcano is a stratovolcano forming the 9 x 5 km island of the same name, which belongs to the Ryukyu Island chain in southern Japan. The island is surrounded by coral reefs, but unlike older extinct ocean islands that sink and form reefs Nakano-shima's volcano is active. There are no known magmatic eruptions in historic times, but a small mud eruption occurred in 1914, and increased "smoking" was seen in 1949. -> See whole entry

Nantai (Volcano)

Nantai stratovolcano is located north of Lake Chuzenji in Nikko National Park, Honshu, and close to the famous temple complex at Nikko. Lake Chuzenji was formed by eruptions of Nantai volcano which produced lava flows that blocked the Daiya River. The dramatic Kegon waterfall plunges over this natural barrier. Recently, it has been discovered, that the youngest activity of Nantai volcano was only about 7000 years ago, when a phreatomagmatic eruption occurred in the summit crater. The new date was made by C14 dating of charred wood found in the corresponding explosion deposit. This means that Nantai volcano needs to be classified as active, and is a potential hazard to the many tourist areas nearby. -> See whole entry

Naolinco (Volcano)

Naolinco volcano is a field of young cinder cones in the Sierra de Chiconquiaco range north of Jalapa (Xalapa), Veracruz, near the town of Naolinco, 35 km from the Gulf of Mexico. The largest cone is Cerro Acatlán NE of Naolinco de Victoria. This and other nearby cones have erupted voluminous lava flows that traveled to the south and SE. The Coacoatzintla lava flow from the Rincón de Chapultepec scoria cone in the western part of the field was erupted about 3000 years ago and represents the youngest lava flow of the Naolinco volcanic field. -> See whole entry

Narage (Volcano)

Narage volcano forms a small volcanic island 32 km WNW of Garove Island, north of western New Britain. It is the northernmost of the Witu (Vitu) Islands. Although the volcano may be extinct, there is vigorous hydrothermal activity. Narage has hot springs and geysers, mainly on its SE and SW coasts. In 1863, a geyser shooting 45 m high was observed at a sandbank 8 km offshore. Narage island is circled by a reef at a distance of 200-400 m.

Narcondum Island (Volcano)

Narugo (Volcano)

Narugo (also known as Naruko) volcano is a caldera NW of Sendai city, northern Honshu, Japan. There is only one known historical eruption from Narugo volcano, which was in 837 AD. Katanuma crater lake is one of the most acid crater lakes of Japan, with a pH of 1.6. Shurado crater on Toyagamori lava dome west of the lake has fumaroles that emit water vapor and SO2. Solfataras are also found on the western shore of Katanuma, and sulfur is mined from sediments on the lake floor. -> See whole entry

Nasu (Volcano)

Nasu volcano at the northern end of Kanto Plain in central Honshu is a group of 3 larger and older and 3 smaller, young stratovolcanoes. The younger cones are called Asahi-dake, Futamata-yama, and Chausu-dake, the youngest of the volcanoes. Chausu-dake started to grow about 16,000 years ago and has had many small phreatic eruptions in the past centuries. -> See whole entry

Natib (Volcano)

Natib is a massive andesitic stratovolcano located at the northern end of the Bataan Peninsula, Luzon Island, Philippines. It is truncated by a 6 x 7 km wide caldera. The age of its last activity is uncertain and the volcano might still be active. 5 thermal areas are present in the summit region.

Nazko (Volcano)

Nazko is a small, tree-covered cinder cone in central British Columbia, Canada, located approximately 75 km west of Quesnel. It last erupted about 5220 years ago (radiocarbon dated). -> See whole entry

Ndete Napu (Volcano)

Ndete Napu is no volcano as such, but a fumarole field along the Lowomelo river valley in central Flores Island. It formed between 1927-29. In 1932 it contained mud pots and high-pressure geysers. There have been no volcanic eruptions in the area in recorded history and the age of the volcanic rocks of the area is unknown.

Nebrodi (Vulkan: Nèbrodi mountains)

The Nèbrodi are a mountain range the northern coast of Sicily, between the Berge the Peloritan and the Madonie mountain ranges. They represent the youngest and largest of the three Sicilian natural reserves. Rolling hills, vast expanses of forest, mountain meadows and lakes, ancient castles and isolated villages characterize the landscape.

Nejapa-Miraflores (Volcano)

Nejapa-Miraflores volcano is an alignment of fissure vents, maars and cinder cones extending from Lake Managua until the western part of Managua city. About 40 eruptions have occurred from this system during the past 30,000 years, and the most recent one produced Asososca maar about 1250 years ago. -> See whole entry

Nemo Peak (Volcano)

Nemo Peak volcano on the northern end of Onekotan Island in the northern Kurile Islands is a complex of 3 overlapping calderas and a young central cone, Nemo Peak, which has been active for about 9,500 years. It has a 350 m wide summit crater filled by a lava dome with a 150 m wide crater itself. Nemo Peak has been historically active and observations date back to the early 18th century. -> See whole entry

Nemrut Dağ (Volcano)

The caldera of Nemrut Dağ is one of the volcanoes near Van lake. It is one of the volcanoes that erupted in historic times. -> See whole entry

Nevado Chachani (Volcano)

Nevado Chachani is a large stratovolcano in southern Peru, 25 km from Arequipa, Peru's 2nd largest city. The volcano is covered by permanent ice and snow. -> See whole entry

Nevado de Incahuasi (Volcano)

Nevado de Incahuasi ("House of the Inca" in Quechua) is a complex stratovolcano on the Chile-Argentina border ENE of Nevados Ojos del Salado volcano. It consists of a 3.5 km wide caldera occupied by 2 younger stratovolcanoes and older lava domes. The youngest stratovolcano has a 1-km-wide crater, and dacitic lava flows radiating down its flanks. A dacitic lava dome partially fills a crater on the eastern flank of Incahuasi. 4 pyroclastic cones are located 7 km to NE and produced basaltic-andesite lava flows that cover an area of 10 sq km. (Source: Smithsonian / GVP volcano information)

Nevado de Longavi (Volcano)

Nevado de Longavi is a conical, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic stratovolcano in central Chile with a lava dome at its summit. No historic eruptions have been recorded from Nevado de Longavi, but there is fumarolic activity and the last eruptions are about 7000 years ago. Nevado de Longaví is a relatively small stratovolcano rising 1500 m above the basement and has an estimated volume of 20 cubic km. -> See whole entry

Nevado de Toluca (Volcano)

Nevado del Huila (Volcano)

Nevado del Ruiz (Volcano)

Nevado del Ruiz volcano in central Colombia, 130 km WNW of Bogota, is a broad, glacier covered volcano. A relatively small eruption in 1985 caused a devastating mud flow that killed almost 25,000 people in the town of Armero, marking one of the worst volcanic disasters in history. Sadly, this tragedy could have been easily avoided if clear warnings by volcanologists had been taken seriously. -> See whole entry

Nevado del Tolima (Volcano)

Nevado del Tolima volcano is an active stratovolcano in NW Colombia. At present, there is only fumarolic activity, but Tolima is one of Colombia's more active volcanoes with frequent explosive eruptions during the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Nevados Casiri (Volcano)

Nevados Casiri (also known as Paugarani) volcano in southern Peru near the Chilean border in a sparsely populated and remote part of the cordillera, about 25 km north of Tacora volcano. The youngest crater has been active during the past 10,000 years and is well preserved. Sulphur is being extracted from 2 mines on the NW and SE flanks of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Nevados de Chillán (Volcano)

Nevados de Chillán volcano in central Chile is one of the country's most active volcanoes. It is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andean Cordillera, and is composed by 3 overlapping stratovolcanoes located on a NNW-SSE-trending line. -> See whole entry

Newberry (Volcano)

Newberry volcano east of the Cascade Range in Oregon, is one of the largest volcanoes on the US mainland. It covers about 1600 km2 and contains a large caldera, Newberry Crater, that was created several 100,000 years ago by a series of devastating eruptions. The volcano last erupted about 1300 years ago, blasting a plug of viscous lava and creating the well-known "Big Obsidian Flow." -> See whole entry

Ngauruhoe (Volcano)

Ngauruhoe (pronouned "Nauruhó"), a steep 600 m tall stratovolcano 17 km NNE of Ruhapehu volcano, is the main vent of Tongariro volcano and one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes. Its last eruptive phase in 1975-77 produced violent ash explosions, lava fountains and pyroclastic flows. In its recent past, Ngauruhoe has been erupting around every 10 years and the time lapsed since then makes this the longest repose interval known in its recorded history. -> See whole entry

Nieuwerkerk (Volcano)

Nieuwerkerk has been described as a submarine volcano with two summits 7 km apart along a NNW-SSE-trending ridge in the western part of the Banda Sea, but there is no certainty whether a submarine volcano actually exists in this location... Eruptions might have occurred sometime before 1893, and in 1925 and 1927. (Source: GVP)

Nigorigawa (Volcano)

Nigorigawa (also spelled Nigorikawa) volcano is a geothermal field (Mori geothermal field) in the 3 km diameter Nigorikawa caldera on the shores of Uchiura Bay, southern Hokkaido, Japan. The caldera was formed during a major explosive eruption ca. 12,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Nii-jima (Volcano)

Nii-jima volcano (新島 Niijima) is a group of 8 rhyolitic lava domes located on the northern and on the southern end of the elongated 11 x 2.5 km island of Niijima. The last eruptions occurred in the 9th century, and there were earthquake swarms beneath the volcano in the 20th century. -> See whole entry

Niigata-Yake-yama (Volcano)

Niigata-Yake-yama volcano is located in the Niigata prefecture in central Honshu, near the Japan Sea. It is one of several Japanese volcanoes named Yake-yama ("Burning Mountain"). It is a very young andesitic-to-dacitic lava dome. A large explosive eruption in 887 AD produced a major pyroclastic flow which traveled 20 km to the sea. -> See whole entry

Nikko (Volcano)

Nikko volcano is a large submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands chain of Japan. Discoloured water above the volcano has been observed almost every year between 1979 and 1990. -> See whole entry

Nikko-Shirane (Volcano)

Nikko-Shirane volcano is a small andesitic volcano located NW of scenic Lake Chuzenji in Nikko National Park. The volcano contains 4 lava domes sitting on top of a shield volcano (Keizuka-yama). All historical eruptions, recorded during the 17th-20th centuries, were phreatic explosions from Shirane-san, the youngest lava dome. Keizuka-yama shield volcano is composed of viscous lava flows with prominent levees. The geometry of these flows created scenic lakes to the north of the volcano.

Nila (Volcano)

Nila stratovolcano forms a small 5x6 km island in the Banda Sea, Indonesia. It has a low caldera breached at sea level on the south and east. In its center, Laworkawra, a 781 m high vegeted cone, forms the most recent volcanic edifice. Fumaroles are located on the SE flank of the cone. Historic activity were summit and flank fissure eruptions. An eruption in 1932 from a fissure that extended from the summit to the SE coast produced heavy ashfall and forced the abandonment of Rumadai village. Nila is cut by a deep erosion gully on the SW side. Submarine vents are found north and west of Nila Island, where gas bubbles are seen escaping at depths of 20-30 m.

Nipesotsu-Maruyama (Volcano)

Nipesotsu-Maruyama volcano is a group of overlapping stratovolcanoes and lava domes located east of Nukabira Lake and about 20 km east of Tokachi-dake volcano on Hokkaido Island, Japan. The only historic eruption was a minor phreatic explosion from Maru-yama ("round mountain") lava dome in 1898. Fumaroles are located at the summit crater. -> See whole entry

Niseko (Volcano)

Niseko volcano (ニセコ火山群 Niseko-kazangun) is a group of stratovolcanoes and lava domes NW of Niseko city. The latest eruption of Niseko was a phreatic or magmatic eruption ca. 7000 years ago. At present, there is geothermal activity including hot springs and fumaroles at various locations.

Nishino-shima (Volcano)

Nishinoshima volcano (西之島, Nishi-no-shima meaning literally: Western Island, also: Rosario Island) is the tiny submerged part of a caldera in the northern Volcano Islands of Japan. The small 700 m wide island was significantly enlarged during the last eruption in 1974, which joined several new islands that formed then. Water discoloration due to possible minor eruptions and / or shallow submarine hydrothermal activity in the area is a frequent sight. The mostly submerged volcano is a massive seamount with prominent flank cones on the south, west and NE flanks. The southern cone rises to a depth of 214 m below the sea surface, 9 km SSE of Nishinoshima.

Nisyros (Place: Volcanic island Nisyros)

Nisyros is a island of the Dodecanese and one of the active volcanoes of Greece -> See whole entry

Nonda (Volcano)

Nonda volcano is an andesitic stratovolcano on Vella Lavella Island in the Solomon Islands. Its lava dome inside a well-preserved crater is the youngest volcanic edifice on the island. There are no confirmed historical eruptions, but inhabitants reported "smoke" and explosive activity in the vicinity of Nonda Hill at the time of a major earthquake in 1959. -> See whole entry

Norikura (Volcano)

Norikura volcano (乗鞍岳, Norikura-dake) in central Honshu is the 3rd highest volcano in Japan. It has been last active about 2000 years ago -> See whole entry

North Sister (Volcano)

North Sister volcano, along with Middle and South Sister part of the Three Sisters Group in central Oregon Cascades. The group forms a prominent landmark in the Central Oregon Cascades. North Sister is the glacially eroded remnant of a andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano, exposing the volcano's central plug. Middle Sister volcano, also over 3000 m in elevation, is located only 2 km to the south. It is basaltic-to-rhyolitic in composition and less eroded than North Sister, but there are no known eruptions in the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Northeast Tuva Plateau Synonym of: Azas Plateau (Volcano)

Novarupta (Volcano)

Novarupta, Alaska, 1912: the name of the vent of the largest eruption of the 20th century. Located near Katmai volcano, the eruption produced 21 cubic kilometers (5 cubic miles) of volcanic material. Pyroclastic flow filled the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, and as much as 0.3 meter (1 foot) of ash fell 161 kilometers (100 miles) away. The eruption caused the collapse of Katmai volcano's summit to form a caldera. -> See whole entry

Nuevo Mundo (Volcano)

Nuevo Mundo volcano is a complex of silicic lava domes and flows in western Bolivia between Potosí and Uyuni. The biggest eruption from Nuevo Mundo was a plinian eruption that deposited ash 200 km east of the volcano, where it can be found at the famous Bolivian mining center of Potosí. Nuevo Mundo was considered to be about 10,000 years old. It is the youngest volcano in the vast Los Frailes ignimbrite plateau in the eastern Cordillera of Bolivia. -> See whole entry

Numazawa (Volcano)

Numazawa volcano has a small 1.5 x 2 km wide caldera which formed during a major eruption about 4600 years BP, producing large quantities of dacitic-to-rhyolitic pumice fall and flow deposits. The caldera is filled by a lake. -> See whole entry

NW Eifuku (Volcano)

NW Eifuku is a small submarine volcano in Japan's Volcano Island chain. It has vigorous thermal activity and white smokers at ca. 1500 m depth which were photographed during a NOOA expedition. -> See whole entry

Nyamuragira (Volcano)

Nyiragongo (Volcano)

Nyiragongo (also spelled Niragongo), one of the world's most beautiful and active volcanoes, is a large stratovolcano near Lake Kivu at the eastern border of DRCongo with Rwanda in the Virunga National Park. It has a 1.2 km diameter summit caldera containing the world's most active and largest lava lake. Nyiragongo is infamous for its extremely fluid lava that runs as water when the lava lake drains. On January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo erupted and the lava lake drained from fissures on its western flanks. The city centre of the Goma town, the capital of the East Virunga province, had been destroyed by voluninous lava flows. 200,000 people were left homeless, adding to the human desaster caused by frequent civil wars. -> See whole entry


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