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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Sabalan (Volcano)

Sabalan volcano (Kuhha-ye-Sabalan) is a massive andesitic stratovolcano in NW Iran, 80 km west of Caspian Sea and west of the city of Ardabil. It is the second highest volcano of Iran (after Damavand volcano) and the highest peak in NW Iran. Sabalan volcano has 7 glaciers covering its flanks. Recent studies suggest that the activity of Sabalan, which had started about 0.5-1.5 million years ago, continued into the Holocene, which suggests it is still active.

Sabancaya (Volcano)

Sabancaya volcano (its name meaning "tongue of fire" in Quechua Indian language) is located in the southern Peruvian Andes and one of Peru's most active volcanoes. The stratovolcano is covered with several glaciers and located in the saddle between the older stratovolcanoes Ampato (6288 m) and Hualca Hualca (6025 m) and the only one of the group that has erupted in historic times. Sabancaya belongs to one of South America's volcanoes with the oldest recorded history of eruptions. Historic records of eruptions from Sabancaya date back to 1750, but its name already appears in written accounts from 1595 AD, suggesting that it had been active around or before that date as well. -> See whole entry

Sabine Gebhardt-Wald ()

Sabine Gebhardt-Wald is a enthousiastic volcano-lover. She is our specialist for the German volcano region Eifel. -> See whole entry

Sacabaya (Volcano)

Volcán Sacabaya (also known as Tambo Quemado or Cerro Quemado) is a low pyroclastic shield near the Rio Lauca on the Bolivian Altiplano 26 km from the border with Chile. It is not known when it last erupted, but its very fresh morphology suggests a young (Holocene) age and there is fumarolic activity. -> See whole entry

Sahand (Volcano)

Sahand volcano (also known as Kuh-e-Sahand) is a stratovolcano in NW Iran, about 60 km east of Lake Urmia (Azarbayjan-e Gharbi) and 40 km SSE of Tabriz city. There are no known historic eruptions, but the volcano is possibly still active and has probably erupted within the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Sairecabur (Volcano)

Sairecábur volcano is a stratovolcano located on the Chile-Bolivia border. It is at the south end of a volcanic group containing at least 10 vents, including 4 major stratovolcanoes: Cerro Sairecabur (5,971 m), Curiquinca (5,722 m) at the NE end, Escalante (5,819 m), and Cerro Colorado (5,728 m) at the NW end. Sairecabur volcano contains a 4.5 km wide caldera, a crater lake at its summit and young lava flows on its flanks, but there are no historic eruptions. There is an active sulfur mine is on the north side of Sairecábur. The Receiver Lab Telescope run by Harvard-University is located at 5,525 m on the flank of Sairecábur.

Sakar (Volcano)

Sakar volcano forms the near circular 9.6 x 8 km Sakar Island 36 km west of Cape Gloucester on the west coast of New Britain, and 17.5 km NNE of Rooke Island. It is an andesitic stratovolcano with a 1.5 km wide summit crater containing a lake, and deeply cut flanks. The island is partially surrounded by a coral reef. There are no known historic eruptions from Sakar, but there are warm springs along the SW coast and possible fumaroles on the NW edge of the crater lake. A cinder cone on the southern flank could be of Holocene age. -> See whole entry

Sakurajima (Volcano)

Sakurajima (also spelled Sakurashima or Sakura-jima, 桜島 in Japanese) volcano in southern Kyushu is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and one of the few that are at present in constant (persistant) activity. Its ongoing typical activity range from strong strombolian to large ash explosions every 4-24 hours. The volcano is located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km east of the city of Kagoshima with a population of half a million. Sakurajima's eruptive history has been recorded since the 8th century. It has frequently deposited ash on Kagoshima, and due to its explosive potential, considered a very dangerous volcano and closely monitored. The largest historical eruptions of Sakurajima took place during 1471-76 and in 1914. -> See whole entry

Salak (Volcano)

Salak volcano is at the NE end of an old eroded volcanic chain. Historic eruptions from Salak volcano were phreatic explosions from craters on its flank in a prominent fumarole area. Salak volcano is an area with intense hydrothermal exploration. -> See whole entry

Salton Buttes (Volcano)

The Salton Buttes volcanic field consist of 5 small rhyolitic lava domes built above sediments of the Colorado River delta within the Salton Sea geothermal field, located at the SE margin of the Salton Sea, California. -> See whole entry

San Borja (Volcano)

San Borja volcano, also known as El Rosarito, is a volcanic field in central Baja California NE of the Vizcaino Peninsula. There are young cinder cones and lava flows near Rosarito and Morro San Domingo at the western end of the field and along the coast north of the Vizcaino Peninsula.

San Cristobal (Volcano)

San Cristobal volcano, also known as El Viejo, is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. It is located near the northwest corner of the country near the city of Chinandega, 110 km WSW of the capital Managua. San Cristobal has had frequent small to medium-sized ash eruptions reported since the 16th century. When first observed by the Spanish in 1528, the volcano was in strong eruption and was described as sending "smoke" during the day and "flames" at night. -> See whole entry

San Diego (Volcano)

San Diego volcano is a young basaltic volcanic field near Lake Güija at the border between El Salvador and Guatemala. It contains cinder cones and unvegetated, fresh-looking lava flows. The lava flows from San Diego volcanic field have created a natural dam to form Lake Güija. The last eruptions of the volcanic field took probably only a few thousands years ago. -> See whole entry

San Francisco Volcanic Field (Volcano)

The San Francisco volcanic field is a vast area covering more than 10,000 km22 containing cinder cones, lava fields, lava domes and the majestic (extinct) San Francisco Peaks, the highest of all mountains in Arizona, rising 5,000 feet above the surrounding plateau. The area presents some of Arizona's most impressive landscapes and geology. The volcanic field is also the site of some of the USA's most recent volcanic activity, the formation of Sunset Crater cinder cone around AD 1100. -> See whole entry

San Jorge (Volcano)

The remarkably linear island of San Jorge (Sao Jorge) is 54 km long and only 5 km wide. -> See whole entry

San José (Volcano)

Volcán San José volcano on the Chile-Argentina lies at the southern end of a volcano group that includes the older volcanoes of Marmolejo and Espíritu Santo. San José volcano has a broad 2 km x 0.5 km summit region with overlapping and nested craters, pyroclastic cones, and blocky lava flows. Historic activity recorded since 1822 consisted in mild phreatomagmatic ash eruptions. -> See whole entry

San Martín (Volcano)

San Miguel (Volcano)

San Miguel volcano (also known locally as Chaparrastique) in eastern El Salvador is a symmetrical stratovolcano and one of the most active volcanoes of the country. It rises majestically from near sea level to 2130 m elevation and forms a prominent land mark. The volcano's summit lacks vegetation due to frequent eruptions, but its flanks are largely covered with coffee plantations. San Miguel has a broad, deep crater complex, which has frequently changed morphology during historic eruptions recorded since the early 16th century. -> See whole entry

San Pablo (Volcano)

The San Pablo volcanic field, (also known as the Laguna volcanic field) in Rizal Province, Luzon Island, Philippines, lies at the southern end of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake on Luzon Island. -> See whole entry

San Pedro (Volcano)

San Pedro volcano in the Atacama desert of northern Chile is one of the highest active volcanoes in the world. San Pedro volcano is a twin volcano with 2 peaks, San Pedro (the western summit) and the older sister volcano San Pablo (6092 m) in the east. A large debris avalanche, similar to the one at Mt St Helend in 1980, occurred at San Pedro in the past, and the present-day cone grew within the depression. The debris avalanche deposit is visible on the western lower slopes of San Pedro. Thick dacitic lava flows with steep-sided fronts cover the upper slopes of San Pedro's cone which has a crater. There is a young-looking scoria cone on the western flank (La Poruña), which erupted an 8 km-long lava flow about 103,000 years ago. Reports of varying degrees of reliability have recorded a number of eruptions in the past centuries. Note: a volcano with the same name is at Lake Atitlán in the Guatemalan Highlands, forming the prominent group of San Pedro, Tolimán, and Atitlán volcanoes.

San Pedro-Pellado (Volcano)

San Pedro-Pellado volcano (also known as San Pedro-Tatara) and is a stratovolcanoe in central Chile, located within the 6 x 12 km Río Colorado caldera. San Pedro stratovolcano has a glacier-filled crater and fumaroles on the SE side of Pellado volcano, an older, eroded predecessor volcano. San Pedro overlies a basal shield of basalt flows. The most recent activity built a young scoria cone some time during the past 10,000 years, but there are no historical eruptions. Note: there is a volcano with a similar name "San Pedro" in Chile. -> See whole entry

San Quintin (Volcano)

San Quintín volcano is a volcanic field on the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, and consists of 11 young cinder cones near San Quinton Bay, the Isla San Martin 5 km offshore, and Monte Mazo. -> See whole entry

San Salvador (Volcano)

San Salvador volcano is a massive stratovolcano immediately northwestwest of El Salvador city. Its modern summit cone is also called the Boqueron stratovolcano. It formed within a 6 km wide caldera left by the collapse of the predecessor volcano about 40,000 years ago. Remnants of the caldera rim form the Picacho and Jabalí peaks. Boqueron volcano is truncated by a steep-walled, 500 m deep and 1500 m wide summit crater, which formed during a large eruption about 800 years ago. Before the last eruption in 1917, the crater of Boqueron contained a 400 m wide lake, which was replaced by a small, 30 m high young cinder cone, called Boqueroncito, built during the eruption along with a major lava flow on the north flank. Most historical eruptions from San Salvador originated from flank vents. -> See whole entry

San Vicente (Volcano)

San Vicente volcano (also known as Chichontepec) is a twin-peaked stratovolcano SE of Lake Ilopango. It is the second highest volcano in El Salvador and probably still active although there are no known historical eruptions. There are many hot springs and fumaroles on the northern and western flanks of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Sanbe (Volcano)

Sanbe (Sambe, Sanbe-san) volcano is a complex stratovolcano in SW Honshu, along the Japan Sea coast. It contains a small 1 km diameter caldera. Its summit at the northern end of the complex is called O-Sanbe. A well-known feature are the Sanbe-onsen Hot Springs, said to promote longevity. Other thermal springs in the area include Yukai-onsen, Koyahara-onsen, and Ikeda Radium-onsen. Sanbe volcano is part of the Daisen-Oki National Park. -> See whole entry

Sand Mountain (Volcano)

Sand Mountain is a cluster of 23 cinder cones NW of Mt Washington, Oregon. The youngest eruption took place to form Lost Lake cinder cone at the north end of the chain about 2000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Sandal (Volcano)

The Sandal volcano belongs to the Kula volcanic area. -> See whole entry

Sanganguey (Volcano)

Sangangüey volcano is an eroded andesitic and dacitic stratovolcano stratovolcano 50 km from the west coast of Mexico. It is the highest volcano in the NW-SE-trending Tepic-Zacoalco graben. Sangangüey contains a prominent lava spine at the summit and has 45 cinder cones on its NW and SE flanks, which are the youngest features of the volcano. They erupted during the past 300,000 years along 5 parallel NW-trending fissures. There are no confirmed historic eruptions, but an Indian legend has recorded the memory of an eruption in 1742, which could have been from one of the flank cones that are similar to those of nearby Ceboruco volcano.

Sangay volcano (Ecuador) (Volcano)

Sangeang Api (Volcano)

Sangeang Api volcano is one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands. It forms a small 13 km wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa. Sangeang Api Volcano consists of 2 overlapping cones: active Doro Api (1949 m) and the older cone and Doro Mantoi (1795 m). Sangeang Api's eruptions are often effusive with lava flows accompanying strombolian activity following an initial explosive phase. -> See whole entry

Santa Ana (Volcano)

Santa Ana (also known as Ilamatepec) volcano is a stratovolcano about 45 km west of San Salvador city. It is El Salvador's highest volcano and one of its most active. The broad summit of Santa Ana has a beautiful array of concentric craters with crescent-shaped rims. Historical activity were mainly small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from both summit and flank vents and has been documented since the 16th century. The San Marcelino cinder cone on the SE flank produced a lava flow in 1722 that traveled 13 km to the east. -> See whole entry

Santa Clara (Volcano)

The Santa Clara volcanic field is volcanic area north of St. George in SW Utah, which has been active since abaout 4 million years ago. It contains numerous cinder cones and lava flows. The Santa Clara lava flow was erupted from 2 young cider cones above Snow Canyon about 10-20,000 years ago and is one of the youngest lava flows in the Colorado Plateau/Basin and Range region. The almost unvegetated lava flow extends 16 km to the south down Snow Canyon, excavated through rocks of the colorful Navajo Sandstone.

Santa Isabel (Volcano)

Santa Isabel volcano is a small andesitic shield volcano in NW Colombia, 9 km SSW of Nevado del Ruiz volcano and NW of Tolima volcano. -> See whole entry

Santa María / Santiaguito (Volcano)

Santiaguito is the name of the dome complex that grew inside the collapse scar left by the catastrophic eruption and partial collapse of Santa María stratovolcano in 1902. Its currently active dome is called Caliente (the "hot one"). Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large volcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. Santa Maria erupted catastrophically in 1902 destroying its former summit. Santa Maria is a popular excursion destination and the summit offers spectacular views onto erupting Santiaguito. -> See whole entry

Santa María / Santiaguito (Volcano)

Santiaguito is the name of the dome complex that grew inside the collapse scar left by the catastrophic eruption and partial collapse of Santa María stratovolcano in 1902. Its currently active dome is called Caliente (the "hot one"). Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large volcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. Santa Maria erupted catastrophically in 1902 destroying its former summit. Santa Maria is a popular excursion destination and the summit offers spectacular views onto erupting Santiaguito. -> See whole entry

Santiaguito (Volcano)

Name of the active lava dome at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala -> See whole entry

Santo Tomas (Volcano)

Santo Tomas volcano on Luzon Island, Philippines, is one of the highest stratovolcanoes of the country. It has many volcanic vents and fissures. A report about an eruption or "displacement" in the region on January 4, 1641, described as an outburst of water accompanied by an earthquake, probably is related to the major eruption of Parker volcano in southern Mindanao on the same day. Note: another volcano with the same name exists in Guatemala.

Santorini (Volcano)

Santorini is a volcanic Island group at the central south end of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea (Greece). As a popular tourist destination in Greece, it is renowned for its spectacular sea-filled volcanic caldera sourrounded by steep colorful cliffs, the beauty of its villages and fields. -> See whole entry

Sara Sara (Volcano)

Sara Sara volcano is a glacier-covered stratovolcano in SW Perú, located between Laguna Parinacocha and the Río Ocona. It is the westernmost of Peru's active volcanoes. the volcano has erupted large andesitic lava flows that extended 10 km eastward into the Río Ocona valle. Relatively undisturbed tephra and lava flow deposits on the upper slope of the volcano suggest that the last activity of volcano was (geologically) recent, and probably less than 10,000 years ago.

Sarik-Gajah (Volcano)

The Sarik volcanic andesitic/basaltic center consists of two young cones with vegetated, but uneroded surfaces. -> See whole entry

Sarychev Peak (Volcano)

Sarychev volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Island chain streching between Kamchatka and Japan. Large explosive eruptions occured between 11-19 June 2009, sending huge ash coulds to altitudes of up to 14 km, and forcing many flights with routes accross the northern Pacific to be cancelled or diverted. -> See whole entry

Sassagara (Volcano)

Sessagara volcano is a small volcanic field in eastern New Guinea. It is ocated 8 km inland from the coastal village of Uiaku near the mouth of the Uiaka River, south of Collingwood Bay. The lavas of the field are alkalic andesitic. Their precise age is unknown, but 2 of the cones north of the Goropu Mountains have fresh-looking preserved summit craters and erupted probably less than 10,000 years ago. The other cones are probably older. (Smithsonian / GVP)

Satah (Volcano)

The Satah Mountain volcanic field in the Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada, is an extensive N-S trending volcanic chain that stretches south of the Itcha Range shield volcano to northeast of Nimpo Lake. The last eruptions took place around 7,200 years ago. -> See whole entry

Savo (Volcano)

Savo volcano is a forested andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano that forms the 6x7 km wide Savo Island, located 14 km north of Guadalcanal. The volcano contains a shallow, elliptical 1x1.5 km wide summit crater. Savo volcano has had dangerous explosive eruptions in the past centuries reflected in local legends. The first historic eruption was in 1568, when Spanish explorers arrived at the island. Oral traditions preserve the memory that pyroclastic flows killed almost all inhabitants, and that the island grew in size (by deposits of pyroclastic flows) on the northern size. Due to its proximity to the capital Honiara and its frequent explosive eruptions, Savo is probably the most dangerous volcano of the Solomon Islands. Savo Island is also known for its megapode population. -> See whole entry

sediment (Geology)

Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. -> See whole entry

seismograph (Earthquakes)

An instrument that displays vibrations and movements in the Earth = the recording of a seismometer. -> See whole entry

Sekincau Belirang (Volcano)

Sekincau volcano was constructed near the southern rim of the small NW-SE-trending double Belirang and Balak calderas, 2 and 2.5 km wide, respectively. -> See whole entry

Semeru ()

Sempu (Volcano)

Sempu is a statovolcano within a 3 km wide caldera containing an explosion crater (Kawah Masem maar) of 450x350 m diameter in the SW part of the caldera and contains a crater lake. There are no confirmed historical eruptions from Sempu. Sulfur has been a site of sulfur extraction from fumarolic areas in the maar since 1938.

Serdan (Volcano)

Serdán-Oriental volcano is a young volcanic field forming a closed basin at the eastern end of the Mexican Altiplano. It contains tuff rings and lake-filled maars (such as Laguna Atexcac and Laguna Alchichica), cinder cones, lava domes and lava flows. The date last volcanic activity is unknown, but occurred less than 10,000 years ago. A major explosive eruption from a now probably buried vent produced the Quetzalapa plinian pumice-fall deposit 20,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

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