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Topics: Volcanology glossary | Earthquake glossary

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Taal (Volcano)

Taal volcano with its lake-filled 15x20 km wide Talisay (Taal) caldera is a beautiful caldera volcano, but also one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes of the Philippines. Taal has had some of the country's largest and deadliest eruptions: At least 6 eruptions during the recorded history of Taal since 1572 claimed fatalities, mostly from powerful pyroclastic flows, as well as tsunamis produced in the crater lake. -> See whole entry

Taapaca (Volcano)

Taapaca is a complex volcano in northern Chile, located partly in Lauca National Park. There are no known historic eruptions, but there have been numerous explosive eruptions followin lava dome building stages occurred in the past few 1000 years. 3 large avalanches have occurred at the volcano. -> See whole entry

Taburete (Volcano)

Taburete volcano is a basaltic to basaltic-andesite stratovolcano rising above the Pacific coastal plain east of the Río Lempa in El Salvador, located at the SW end of a cluster of volcanoes between San Vincente and San Miguel volcanoes. Volcan Taburete contains a well-preserved, 150-300 m deep summit crater lowest on the eastern side. It is unknown whether Taburete has been active in the past 10,000 years. Possible candidates include a lava flow on the southern flank, and the flank cone Loma Pacha, with a thick, 1 km long lava flow located on the lower SE flank.

Tacaná (Volcano)

Tacana (Volcano)

Tacaná volcano on the Mexican-Guatemalan border is a symmetrical stratovolcano rising 1800 m above its base and forms the NW end of the Central American Volcanic Belt. Tacana consists of overlapping volcanic edifices, reflecting a migration of vents from the NE to the SW over time. The youngest vent is the San Antonio lava dome in a crater on the upper SW flank, which was the site of most recent activity. Historic eruptions of Tacaná were small phreatic explosions in 1855, 1878, 1949–1950 and 1986, from both Tacaná and San Antonio. The eruption in 1950 was the largest and produced pyroclastic flows. Active fumaroles are found at 3600 m altitude and hot springs in various locations at the base of the volcano. -> See whole entry

Tacora (Volcano)

Tacora is the northernmost volcano in Chile and located near the Bolivian border. It is a roughly conical andesitic twin volcano tiogether with Chupiquiña volcano to the north. Reported eruptions in 1930 and 1937 could not be verified by independent sources. There are many sulfur mines in the saddle between Tacora and Chupiquiña, and hot springs are located on the eastern side of Tacora. -> See whole entry

Taftan (Volcano)

Taftan volcano is a strongly eroded stratovolcano in SE Iran. The andesitic volcano has 2 summits (Narkuh and Matherkuh). Very active sulfur fumaroles are found at the summit of the higher SE cone. Reports of activity in 1902 and 1993 are uncertain. -> See whole entry

Takahara (Volcano)

Takahara is a small stratovolcano located SW of Nasu volcano and NNW of Utsunomiya city in central Honshu. The basaltic-to-dacitic volcano is constructed within the Shiobara caldera. It contains a number of small lava domes, including the symmetrical Fuji-san, one of many conical volcanic mountains named after Japan's renowned Mount Fuji. Fuji-san is the youngest known volcanic feature of Takahara volcano and was formed about 6,500 years ago. -> See whole entry

Takuan (Volcano)

Takuan is a group of stratovolcanoes in the SE part of Bougainville Island in the Crown Prince Ranges, Papua New Guinea. The group contains 3 closely spaced, NW-SE-trending andesitic-dacitic stratovolcanoes and 2 small lava domes. The volcanoes are densely forested, but 2 of them are only little eroded and have probably been active during the past 10,000 years. -> See whole entry

Talagabodas (Volcano)

Talagabodas (also written Telagabodas) is an andesitic stratovolcano immediately north of the more active and known Galunggung volcano. It is one of the older volcanoes in a regional N-S trending chain of Quaternary volcanos east of Garut. Talagabodas is known for its colorful crater lake and hydrothermal areas. -> See whole entry

Talakmau (Volcano)

Talakmau (also known as Talamau) is a massive compound volcano rising above the western coastal plain of Sumatra. -> See whole entry

Talang volcano (Volcano)

Tambora (Volcano)

On 10 April 1815, Tambora produced the largest eruption known on the planet during the past 10,000 years. The volcano erupted more than 50 cubic kilometers of magma. Caldera collapse at the end of the eruption destroyed 30 km3 of the mountain and formed a 6 km wide and 1250 m deep caldera. FLoating islands of pumice 3 miles long were observed in April 1815, and even 4 years later, these islands still hindered navigation. The eruption produced global climatic effects and killed more than 100,000 people, directly and indirectly. Minor lava domes and flows have been extruded on the caldera floor at Tambora during the 19th and 20th centuries. -> See whole entry

Tampomas (Volcano)

Gunung Tampomas volcano 41 km NE of Bandung is the northernmost of the active volcanoes in West Java. Tamponas a small andesitic stratovolcano overlooking the northern coastal plain about halfway between Tangkubanparahu and Cereme volcanoes. Young lava flows are found on the flanks of Tampomas volcano.

Tandikat volcano (Volcano)

Tanga (Volcano)

Tanga volcano is a mostly submerged stratovolcano and caldera forming the Tanga islands, located 44 km from New Ireland. The islands belonging to the caldera rim consist of Lif (283 m high), Tefa (155 m), southern Malendok (472 m). The smaller islands Bitlit and Bitbok are post-caldera lava domes in the centre of the caldera. It is unknown if Tanga volcano is still active. A small hot spring on Malendok Islands marks the only current thermal activity.

Tangkubanparahu (Volcano)

Tao-Rusyr (Volcano)

Tao-Rusyr volcano is an impressive basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano located on the southern end of Onekotan Island in the northern Kuriles. It contains a 7.5 km wide caldera and a large symmetrical new central cone, Krenitzyn Peak which is the vent of young activity. A lava dome was formed in eruptions in 1952. The caldera contains the beautiful, deep blue 7-km-wide Kal'tsevoe lake and is famous for its spectacular scenery. -> See whole entry

Tarakan (Volcano)

Tarakan is a twin volcano 16 km NE of more active Dukono. There is no known historic activity from the two large cinder cones Tarakan Lamo and Tarakan Itji ("big and small Tarakan"). -> See whole entry

Taranaki (Volcano)

Taranaki (Egmont) volcano is an isolated steep andesitic stratovolcano located in the SW part of the North Island of New Zealand. It is the second highest peak on the North Island and one of the most active volcanoes in New Zealand and has last erupted in 1854. -> See whole entry

Tata Sabaya (Volcano)

The symmetrical Tata Sabaya stratovolcano is located at the northern end of the Salar de Coipasa in the Altiplano of Bolivia. Salar de Coipasa is the world's largest salt flat. -> See whole entry

Tate-yama (Volcano)

Midagahara (prev. referred to as Tate-yama) volcano is located in the southeastern area of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. It is surrounded by high peaks of the North Japan Alps and named for the granite-and-gneiss peak of Tate-yama (立山), which lies immediately to the east and forms one of the tallest peaks in the Hida Mountains at 3,015 m (9,892 ft). Tate-yama, along with Mount Fuji and Mount Haku, it is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains". -> See whole entry

Taveuni (Volcano)

Taveuni volcano is a massive, elongated basaltic shield volcano, which forms the 40 km long Tavenui Island, the 3rd largest of the Fiji Islands. Tavenui is known as the "Garden Island" because of its rich volcanic soils. Tavenui volcano has had at least 36 eruptions since the the known human occupation of between 370-110 BC. All of these eruptions, on average every 60-65 years, have occurred from vents on the southern two-thirds of the island. -> See whole entry

Tavui (Volcano)

Tavui is a large, mostly submerged caldera offshore from east New Britain, Papua New Guinea. It has impressive 1000 m cliffs at a location called Submarime Base, a popular diving spot in New Britain. The volcano was last active about 7000 years ago and might still be considered active. -> See whole entry

Tecapa (Volcano)

Tecapa volcano a complex basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano in east-central El Salvador. It is located at the NW end of a cluster of volcanoes east of the Río Lempa between San Vicente and San Miguel volcanoes. -> See whole entry

tectonic (Earthquakes)

The adjective "tectonic" refers to processes, properties, or resulting features related to the deformation (breaking and slow, plastic deformation) of rocks over large sections of the upper mantle and crust (lithosphere). It is usually applied to large-scale features and processes, in the km scale and app. Smaller miniature tectonic processes are sometimes called micro-tectonic.

tectonic fault Synonym of: fault (Earthquakes)

Telica (Volcano)

Telica, one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua, is a group of overlapping cones and craters on a broad NW line. The most prominent vent is a 700 m wide and 120 m deep double crater at the summit. Its southern summit crater has been the source of Telica's recent eruptions. The older Santa Clara vent at the SW end of the edifice erupted in 16th century and is now covered with vegetation. Another vent El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, is another volcanic edifice with several nested craters. Fumaroles and boiling mudpots are found at Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica. This prominent geothermal area is popular among tourists and the site of nearby geothermal exploration.

Telomoyo (Volcano)

Also called Telemojo, Telemoyo is a small volcano near the town of Dalangan in central Java. Although there are no known historic eruption, it is considered active and probably has had eruptions within the past few thousands of years. -> See whole entry

Tendürek Dağ (Volcano)

Tendürek Dagi, also known as Tendürük Dagi, is an elongated shield volcano that rises 1800 m above the plain of Dogubayazit, near the Iranian border, south of Mount Ararat. -> See whole entry

Tenerife (Volcano)

The large triangular island of Tenerife is composed of a complex of overlapping Miocene-to-Quaternary stratovolcanoes that have remained active into historical time. -> See whole entry

Tengchong (Volcano)

Tengchong volcano is a volcanic field in southern China 40 km from the border with Burma (Myanmar) 430 km WNW of the city of Kunming. The Tengchong volcanic field contains 3 main volcanoes of Holocene age, Dayingshan, Maanshan, and Heikongshan, plus 65 older volcanoes and cones. The cones at the northern end of the field are probably the youngest, judging from their sparsely vegetated morphology and clearly visible lava flows. A possible historic explosive eruption occurred in 1609 at Dayingshan or Heikongshan, and there are unconfirmed reports of eruptions in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). The Tengchong district has several very active geothermal fields, the largest and highest temperature of which is the Rehai geothermal field. The Rehai geothermal field has had over 20 hydrothermal explosions since 1993. -> See whole entry

Teon (Volcano)

Andesitic Teon volcano (also known as Serawerna, the name of its active crater) forms an elongated island in NNE direction and is built up from lava flows and cinder cones. A major eruption in 1660 produced pyroclastic flows and surges which caused fatalities and damage.

tephrite (Volcanology)

Tephrite is an type of volcanic (extrusive) rock with low silica content, similar to basalt, but containing foid minerals (e.g. nephelinite, leucite) along with plagioclase. The composition of tephrite is called tephritic.

tephritic (Volcanology)

Tephritic refers to the mineral composition of tephrite, an type of volcanic (extrusive) rock with low silica content, similar to basalt, but containing foid minerals (e.g. nephelinite, leucite) along with plagioclase.

Terceira (Volcano)

Terceira Island contains four stratovolcanoes constructed along a prominent ESE-WNW-trending fissure zone that cuts across the island. -> See whole entry

Theistareykjarbunga volcano (Volcano)

Tianshan (Volcano)

Tianshan volcano is a group of cinder cones in the Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang Province in NW China. The Pechan cone was active in the 1st and 7th centuries AD. Pechan is also known by a variety of other names, including Peishan, Baishan, Hochan, Aghie, Bichbalick, Khala, and Boschan. -> See whole entry

Tiatia (Volcano)

Tiatia volcano (Chacha-dake in Japanese) is one of the most impressive volcanoes in the Kuriles. It is a symmetrical stratovolcano located on the NE end of Kunashir Island 70 km from Hokkiado, Japan. The volcano has a 2.1 x 2.4 km wide caldera and a young summit central cone within the caldera, rising 400 m above the floor and containing a 400 x 250 m wide summit crater. Its last confirmed eruption was in 1981. -> See whole entry

Ticsani (Volcano)

Ticsani is a complex of 3 dacitic lava domes in southern Peru in the Ichuna district across the Río Tambo about 30 km SE of Huaynaputina volcano. The volcano has a youthful appearance and is not covered by glaciers. There are no historical eruptions known from Ticsani, a pumice layer from the crater that contains the youngest lava dome overlies the ash from the 1600 AD Huaynaputina eruption and therefore must be younger. At present, there is fumarolic activity. -> See whole entry

Tidore (Volcano)

Tidore volcanic complex forms a conisits of 2 volcanoes, the beautiful and conical Kiematabu peak (1730 m) in the south and the lower, broad volcano of Sabale volcano in north, containing a caldera and two cinder cones. Kiematabu peak is the highest volcano of the North Maluku island chain. Maitara Island, 1 km off the NW coast, forms another volcanic edifice belonging to the same chain. No historic activity is known from the complex.

Tigalalu (Volcano)

Gunung Tigalalu (Mount Tigalalu) at the northern end of Kayoa Island lies almost exactly on the equator and is the southernmost of the volcanic chain off the W coast of Halmahera. The volcano has not erupted in historic times.

Tilocalar (Volcano)

Tilocalar is a twin volcano in northern Chile. The 2 stratovolcanoes are the larger Tilocálar Sur and the smaller northern volcano, Tilocálar Norte, located about 3.5 km SW. -> See whole entry

Timber Mountain (Volcano)

The Timer Mountain volcanic field, located approximately 150 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, consists mainly of basaltic cinder cones and lava flows. It has been active in 3 major cycles, starting 12 million years ago. The most recent eruptions probably occurred less than 10,000 years ago. -> See whole entry

Tinakula (Volcano)

Tinakula volcano is located at the NW end of the Santa Cruz islands in the Solomon Islands. It forms a small 3.5 km wide and steep island, which is the upper 25% of a very active stratovolcano that rises more than 3 km from the sea floor. Tinakula is very similar to Stromboli volcano in Italy. Tinakula's active summit crater is often in strombolian activity and the glowing bombs it ejects often roll down down a steep slope of loose ash and scoria extending to the sea on the SW side of the island. The small 3.5 km wide Tinakula Island was inhabited until 1971 when a major eruption and a tsunami occurred and prompted people to abandon the island. Tinakula has been frequently active since it was first discovered by the Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira in 1595. -> See whole entry

Tindfjallajökull (Volcano)

Tinguiririca (Volcano)

Tinguiririca is a complex stratovolcano west of the Chile-Argentina border in central Chile. The volcano consists of overlapping small stratovolcanoes, cinder cones and craters that have developed over an NNE-SSE trending fissure. The youngest appear to be Tinguiririca and Fray Carlos. A single historical, probably phreatic eruption from Tinguiririca was recorded in 1917. There was an un-confirmed report of an eruption in 1994. -> See whole entry

Tipas (Volcano)

Cerro Tipas (also known as Cerro Walter Penk) volcano is a massive volcanic complex in NW Argentina located immediately SSW of its better known neighbor, 6887-m-high Nevados Ojos del Salado. Tipas is the third highest active volcano in the world. It is poorly known because of its isolated location. The Tipas volcanic complex contains craters, cones, lava domes and lava flows covering an area of 25 sq km. It has a youthful morphology and it is thought that its latest eruptions were less than 10,000 years ago.

To-shima (Volcano)

To-shima volcano (利島, Toshima) in the northern Izu Island chain is a stratovolcano forming a small 2 x 2.4 km island south of Oshima volcano. -> See whole entry

Toba volcano (Volcano)

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