IntroductionMount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BC. Historical lava flows cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, which makes it the highest and most voluminous in Italy. Ever since ancient times, the volcano seems to have been in near-constant activity. It is considered, after Kilauea on Hawaii, the second most active, i.e. productive volcano on earth.
Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna: (1) persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, from one or more of the 4 prominent summit craters, the Bocca Nova, Voragine (the former Central Crater), NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). (2) Flank eruptions, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequent and originate from fissures that open on the volcano's flanks. Such flank eruptions, such as the spectacular recent ones in 2001 and 2002-03 commonly form cinder cones, that dot the volcano in their hundreds.
Group on a narrow ledge that separates two vents on Etna volcano, Italy. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Perfect steam ring from Etna volcano on 11 Nov 2013 (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Activité strombolienne du cratère SE en octobre 2006. Les lumières de Catane au fond. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
A magnificient moment of the lava fountain. This photo was also featured in National Geographic's article about Etna (Feb 2002 issue). (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Voyages au volcan Etna :Volcans d'Italie - le Grand Tour (15 jours d'expédition du Vésuve à l’Etna)Etna Volcan Spécial (4/5 jours - expédition sur le volcan du mont Etna, Italie)Etna Discovery (8-days hiking & study tour on Mt. Etna volcano, Italy)Montagnes de Feu - du Stromboli à l'Etna (marche et voyage d'étude avec un volcanologue vers les volcans Etna, Vulcano, Lipari et Stromboli)
See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8 | NASA FIRMS