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Canlaon volcano

Updated: Mar 4, 2024 01:24 GMT -
Stratovolcano 2435 m / 7,989 ft
Central Philippines (Philippines), 10.41°N / 123.13°E
Current status: restless (2 out of 5)
Last update: 22 Nov 2023 (Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report)

Canlaon volcano (also spelled Kanlaon) on Negros Island is one of the most active volcanoes of the Philippines and the most active one of the Central Philippines. It forms the highest peak of Negros Island and is located west of Canlaon about 36 km southeast of Bacolod City and belongs to Canlaon National Park.

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Typical eruption style: Explosive (phreatic eruptions)
Canlaon volcano eruptions: 2016, 2015, 2006, 2005, 2003, 2002, 1996, 1993, 1992, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1980, 1978, 1970, 1969, 1932-33, 1927, 1905-06, 1904, 1902, 1894, 1893, 1884, 1883, 1866

Latest nearby earthquakes

TimeMag. / DepthDistance/Location
Feb 6, 09:06 pm (Manila)
Feb 6, 13:06 GMT

1 km
4.2 km (2.6 mi) to the N Province of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, 12 km northwest of Canlaon City, Philippines Info
Saturday, February 3, 2024 GMT (1 quake)
Feb 3, 04:14 pm (Manila)
Feb 3, 08:14 GMT

17 km
14 km (8.6 mi) to the S 12 km northeast of Tinongan, Philippines Info
Monday, December 25, 2023 GMT (1 quake)
Dec 25, 2023 09:32 pm (Manila)
Dec 25, 2023 13:32 GMT

7 km
26 km (16 mi) to the SE 10.2 km north of Guihulngan, Philippines Info
Tuesday, November 21, 2023 GMT (2 quakes)
Nov 22, 2023 04:06 am (Manila)
Nov 21, 2023 20:06 GMT

1 km
3.2 km (2 mi) to the N Province of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, 10.8 km northwest of Canlaon City, Philippines Info
Nov 22, 2023 03:58 am (Manila)
Nov 21, 2023 19:58 GMT

6 km
8.9 km (5.5 mi) to the NW 22 km southeast of Mansilingan, Philippines Info
Wednesday, October 4, 2023 GMT (3 quakes)
Oct 5, 2023 12:40 am (Manila)
Oct 4, 2023 16:40 GMT

26 km
18 km (11 mi) to the E 22 km southwest of Ualog, Philippines Info
Oct 5, 2023 12:40 am (Manila)
Oct 4, 2023 16:40 GMT

23 km
9.8 km (6.1 mi) to the E Province of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, 4.8 km north of Canlaon City, Philippines Info
Oct 5, 2023 12:08 am (Manila)
Oct 4, 2023 16:08 GMT

9 km
19 km (12 mi) to the E Province of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, 9.7 km east of Canlaon City, Philippines Info
Friday, September 29, 2023 GMT (1 quake)
Sep 29, 2023 10:26 am (Manila)
Sep 29, 2023 02:26 GMT

14 km
25 km (15 mi) to the S 12 km northwest of Guihulngan, Philippines Info
Tuesday, September 5, 2023 GMT (2 quakes)
Sep 6, 2023 05:40 am (Manila)
Sep 5, 2023 21:40 GMT

7 km
7.6 km (4.7 mi) to the NE Province of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, 7.9 km northwest of Canlaon City, Philippines Info
Sep 5, 2023 10:31 am (Manila)
Sep 5, 2023 02:31 GMT

4 km
6.7 km (4.2 mi) to the NE Province of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, 8.4 km northwest of Canlaon City, Philippines Info


Canlaon, part of the Negros Volcanic Belt, is a large stratovolcano dotted with numerous flank cones and craters, many of which contain lakes.
The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated caldera with two craters. One is inactive and contains a crater lake. The second crater to the south is smaller, higher and contains the historically active vent, Lugud crater. Lugud crater is 250 m wide and 150-200 m deep. The base of Kanlaon measures an area of 30 km x 14 km.
Historical eruptions from Kanlaon have been recorded since 1866. Most historic eruptions were small to medium sized phreatic explosions, causing minor ash fall near the volcano. Canlaon's geologic record of past deposits include a remarkable large debris avalanche, that resulted from flank failure of the volcano and traveled 33 km to the SW.

2009 earthquakes
A large increase in volcanic earthquakes occurred at Kanlaon volcano, Philippines, in late August 2009. Between 23 August and 1 September, 257 earthquakes were recorded, much more than normal levels of 0-4 tremors per day.
2 earthquakes were felt by residents living near Canlaon. At 17:26 PM on 23 August an earthquake was felt at Intensity II in Barangay Ara-al, La Carlota City. A second earthquake at 22:27 PM on 30 August 30 was felt at Intensity III in La Castellana and at Intensity IV in La Carlotta City and Bago City.
The epicenters of the earthquakes were concentrated at the NW slope of the volcano and probably indicated the reactivation of a local fault, perhaps caused by deep magma movements under the surface. No other changes of the volcano were observed and the alert status was not raised by Philippine authorities.
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)

2008 earthquakes
A significant increase of earthquakes at Canlaon volcano occurred between 7-10 February 2008, and the alert level was temporarily raised and a 4 km exclusion zone was established around the volcano. The alert was later dropped, as no other changes at the volcano occurred that might have suggested new activity.

2006 ash eruptions
A series of new eruptions at Kanlaon volcano began on 3 June 2006. Until 25 July, a total of 23 ash eruptions were reported. All eruptions were phreatic (i.e. no fresh magma was ejected), and ejected ash and steam up to 2 km above the crater.
No significant seismic activity had occurred before or after the ash emissions, indicating the explosions were near surface hydrothermal events.
Source: GVP monthly activity report for Kanlaon

2005 ash eruptions
A brief phreatic ash eruption occurred at Canlaon volcano on 21 January 2005, producing a 500 m high ash plume. A fine layer of ash fell on the town of Cabagnaan 5.5 km SW of the crater.
Ash emissions began again on 20 March and caused minor ash fall in the town of Guintubdan 5 km W of the volcano. Until 4 April, occasional ash eruptions reached 1 km above the volcano, and small ash fall was reported in the towns of La Castellana (16 km SW of the crater), Upper Sag-ang, Yubo (5-6 km SW), and Guintubdan (5-6 km WNW). Ash eruptions stopped after 25 May 2005.
(Source: GVP monthly reports)

2003 small ash eruptions
On 17 March 2003, a gray volcanic plume was observed above Canloaon volcano. Small eruptions produced plumes of steam and ahs rising 100 m above the active crater during the beginning of June. On 8 June, ashfall was observed at Canlaon City. A total of 46 minor ash ejections were recorded, mostly in June and July. After 23 July, only weak steam emission was noted and seismic activity returned to normal low levels.

2002 ash eruptions
An increase in seismicity during February-April 2002 was followed by a raised alert, increased steaming, and a small ash eruption on 28 November 2002.

1996 phreatic eruption with 3 fatalities
A phreatic explosion at Canlaon volcano on 10 August 1996 killed 3 people who were at the summit when the explosion happened. 18 people were injured by falling blocks and had to be hospitalized.

1993 phreatic eruption
Small phreatic explosions occurred at Canlaon volcano on 25 August and 3 September 1993. The eruption on 3 September lasted for 8 minutes and produced a steam-and-ash column that rose 1,000 m above the summit before drifting SSW and SSE. Ash fell at the Canlaon Volcano Observatory 8 km SSE of the summit. The phreatic eruption was accompanied by an earthquake felt at the Cabagnaan Station.
Source: GVP monthly reports

1992 eruption
A minor earthquake accompanied an ash eruption at Kanlaon volcano on 10 June 1992.

1989 ash eruptions
Since 25 October 1989 mildly explosive ash ejections occurred almost daily. The eruptions lasted until December 1989. On 3 November, a relatively large eruption produced an ash p0lume rising 1200 m above the crater. PHILVOLCS scientists had detected ground inflation a few hours before the ash emissions.

1988 eruptions
A series of ash emissions occurred between 21-27 June 1988 and produced plumes of up to 500 m high. Small amounts of ash fell in the village of Mananawin on the SE slope at 980 m elevation.

1987 ash eruptions
New euptions started at Kanlaon volcano in April 1987. On the morning of 24 April an eruption produced a fresh ash deposit ~1-2 km wide and 6.5 km long that extended down the SW flank.
There was no seismic signal associated with the explosions and no sounds heard by local residents. A sulfur smell was reported from the Cabagnaan Observatory (approximately 6 km SW of the crater) on the same day.
The activity was preceded by an increase in sulphate concentrations at Mambucal Aquapool, Mudpool, and Sulfur Spring, 9.75 km NNW of Kanlaon's summit.
Source: GVP monthly reports

1986 powerful eruption of 21 June
Without any preceding seismic activity, Canlaon had a small eruption on 3 June 1986, producing a plume of 300 m above the crater.
19 days later, on 21 June, a powerful explosion occurred sending a mushroom-shaped plume to 4000 m above the crater. The eruption was accompanied by an earthquake felt at up to 8 km from the summit, as well as booming and hissing noises.

See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8 | NASA FIRMS
Wed, 22 Nov 2023, 15:00

Kanlaon volcano (Philippines) - Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 15 November-21 November 2023 (Continuing Activity)

In a special notice for Kanlaon, PHIVOLCS stated that the seismic network detected 15 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during 0358-0500 on 22 November with local magnitudes of 1.4-4.2 and depths of 0-2 km beneath the N flank. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions from the summit crater were elevated since 1 May, averaging 570 tonnes/day (t/d); the most recent measurement was 1,017 t/d, recorded on 14 November. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS and electronic tilt data had been recording inflation at the volcano since March 2022, and inflation of the mid-SW flank since October. ... Read all
Wed, 13 Sep 2023, 14:00

Kanlaon volcano (Philippines) - Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 6 September-12 September 2023 (Continuing Activity)

PHIVOLCS issued a special notice for Kanlaon at 0900 on 6 September, noting increased seismicity. The seismic network detected 36 volcanic earthquakes including 34 volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 0500 on 4 September and 0750 on 6 September at depths of 0-9 km beneath the NE flank. The earthquakes had local magnitudes of 0.8-3.4. ... Read all