BackgroundThe 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep Valley. The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea Caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea Caldera within the last several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.
Very rare and big (2cm!) Olivine crystal at a rock of the Tengger caldera (Photo: Tobias Schorr)
A powerful vulcanian-type explosion shakes the ground. Many incandescent bombs are thrown many hundreds of meters into the night sky, and many of them land outside the cr...
The glowing vent(s) illuminate the diffuse steam and ash plume above Bromo's crater bright red at night. (Photo: Tom Pfeiffer)
Strombolian activity in Bromo Crater, East Java, Indonesia (2011) (Photo: Richard Roscoe)
Bromo volcano tours:From Krakatau to Bali (16-day study and photo tour to Java, Indonesia)Volcanoes of Java (17-day walking and trekking tour on Java)Dream Come True - World Volcano Tour (4-week round-the-world trip to Hawaii - Vanuatu - New Zealand - Indonesia)Volcanoes of East Java (4-5 days walking tour to Bromo, Semeru and Ijen)Bromo, Semeru, Ijen (trekking tour to Semeru, Bromo, Ijen volcanoes (East Java))
See also: Sentinel hub | Landsat 8 | NASA FIRMS