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Wednesday, Feb 08, 2017
A story in pictures of Erta Ale volcano's intense lava lake overflowing phase as witnessed by participants from our recent Volcano Special tour during 16-19 January 2017. ...
Thursday, Feb 02, 2017
An active lava lake has returned to one of the summit pit craters in the caldera of Nyamuragira volcano. ...
Schematic map of Africa's most active volcanoes
Volcanoes in AfricaAdapted from: Simpkin and Siebert, 1994, Volcanoes of the World:
Africa is the only region other than the Mediterranean with an historically dated B.C. eruption (at Mount Cameroon, observed by a passing Carthaginian navigator in the 5th century B.C.). By the 15th centuray A.D., however, when Portuguese exploration of Africa had begun and Vasco de Gama sailed to India via the Cape of Good Hope, only 2 more eruptions had been recorded, both from Ethiopia. In the next 3 and two-thirds centuries, another 20 some eruptions were recorded, but the main historical record of the continent began with the opening of the Suez Canal at the end of 1869, and the heyday of African exploration that followed.
Most African volcanoes result from hotspots, the rifting in East Africa, or a combination of the two. The East African rift, one of the world's most dramatic extensional structures, has produced the continent's highest and lowest volcanoes, ranging from the massive Kilimanjaro to vents in Ethiopia's Danakil Depression that lie below sea level.
Two neighboring volcanoes in Zaire's (today's Democratic Republic of the Congo) Virunga National Park, Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, are responsible for nearly two-fifths of Africa's historical eruptions.
Volcanoes of Africa & Arabia
The East African Rift Valley
Map of East Africa showing some of the historically active volcanoes (red triangles) and the Afar Triangle (shaded, center) -- a so-called triple junction (or triple point), where three plates are pulling away from one another: the Arabian Plate, and the two parts of the African Plate (the Nubian and the Somalian) splitting along the East African Rift Zone.
From: Kious and Tilling, 1996, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics: USGS Online version 1.08
In East Africa, spreading processes have already torn Saudi Arabia away from the rest of the African continent, forming the Red Sea. The actively splitting African Plate and the Arabian Plate meet in what geologists call a triple junction, where the Red Sea meets the Gulf of Aden. A new spreading centre may be developing under Africa along the East African Rift Zone. When the continental crust stretches beyond its limits, tension cracks begin to appear on the Earth's surface. Magma rises and squeezes through the widening cracks, sometimes to erupt and form volcanoes. The rising magma, whether or not it erupts, puts more pressure on the crust to produce additional fractures and, ultimately, the rift zone.
East Africa may be the site of the Earth's next major ocean. Plate interactions in the region provide scientists an opportunity to study first hand how the Atlantic may have begun to form about 200 million years ago. Geologists believe that, if spreading continues, the three plates that meet at the edge of the present-day African continent will separate completely; allowing the Indian Ocean to flood the area and making the easternmost corner of Africa (the Horn of Africa) a large island.
More on VolcanoDiscovery:
Batu Tara photos
: A remote island in the Flores Sea of Indonesia formed by a single volcano that has been in strong strombolian eruption for years. We regularly lead expeditions to there where we camp several days to observe it.
Dallol hot springs
: One of the most bizarre landscapes on earth: Dallol is a vast and very active hydrothermal field creating a colorful array of hot springs, small geysers, salt towers, colorful lakes and ponds in the middle of the deepest part of the Danakil desert and the Karum salt lake.
: Lists and maps of earthquakes in the world in near real time. Country lists, earthquake archive, and I-felt-it reports.